Bi-specific Antibody

T’ing it Up for Bi-Specific Antibodies…(Part 2)

In our previous blog, we discussed the two-predominant types of T cells, and some in vitro assays these cells are employed in to test the function and specificity of bi-specific antibodies.  In this blog, we discuss the in vivo assays that test the efficacy of these antibodies and tie it all together by reviewing some data generated with these assays. What are some T cell-based in vivo assays used to examine bi-specific antibody efficacy? Most preclinical in vivo experiments that examine the efficacy of bi-specific antibodies are performed using immuno-deficient mice, such as the NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice.  These mice [...]

By |2018-06-05T01:24:16-07:00January 9th, 2018|Bi-specific Antibody, Blog, T Cells|0 Comments

T’ing it Up for Bi-Specific Antibodies…(Part 1)

With the current trend of developing immunotherapies for cancer, many of these therapies center on exploiting the potent effector functions of lymphocytes, specifically T cells.  In our previous blogs, we introduced a new class of therapeutic molecules called bi-specific antibodies and discussed their mechanism of action for anti-cancer therapy.  In this blog, we will discuss in vitro assays that use T cells to develop bi-specific antibody programs. What are CD4 and CD8 T cells? In most organismal immune systems, there are two main types of T cells.  One type is the CD4 T cell, which is a hematopoietic cell that [...]

By |2018-05-30T01:26:01-07:00November 7th, 2017|Bi-specific Antibody, Blog, T Cells|0 Comments

Antibodies with a Split Personality…(Part 3)

In the final part of our series on bi-specific antibodies, we’ll discuss some of the assays that are used to test the specificity, functionality, and safety of bi-specific antibodies. How are bi-specific antibodies tested for antigen specificity? As described in our previous blogs, bi-specific antibodies have the capability to recognize two different antigens due to the presence of two different antigen recognition domains.  To ensure that each arm has specificity for the correct antigen, binding assays are performed with a cell line that expresses the antigen recognized by one arm of the bi-specific antibody.  Typically, flow cytometry is used as [...]

By |2018-05-30T01:26:01-07:00August 8th, 2017|Bi-specific Antibody, Blog|0 Comments

Antibodies with a Split Personality…(Part 2)

How were bi-specific antibodies initially created? Each individual bivalent, monospecific antibody is composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, in which a single heavy chain combines with a light chain to create an individual target antigen recognition site.  Since there are two antigen binding sites per antibody, two heavy-light chain pairs combine and form a bivalent, monospecific antibody.  When producing these antibodies, only one heavy chain and its corresponding light chain is expressed by the cells because there is only one specific target antigen for the antibody. In contrast, bi-specific antibodies are created by expressing two [...]

By |2018-05-30T01:26:02-07:00June 13th, 2017|Bi-specific Antibody, Blog|0 Comments

Antibodies with a Split Personality…(Part 1)

What is a bi-specific antibody? Bi-specific antibodies are a class of engineered antibodies developed for various oncology indications and autoimmune diseases.  Typically, the antigen recognition domains on the tips of the F(ab)2 fragment of a standard antibody are identical and bind the same antigen.  In contrast, bi-specific antibodies have different antigen recognition domains on each of those tips and each tip will thus bind a different antigen. With advances in genetic and protein engineering and recombinant protein expression, different types of bi-specific antibodies can be produced.  While there are a variety of bi-specific antibodies that are found in at least [...]

By |2018-05-30T01:26:02-07:00May 2nd, 2017|Bi-specific Antibody, Blog|0 Comments