Safety Assessment

Cytokine Storms a-brewing… (Part 2)

Cytokine Storms a-brewing… (Part 2) Considerations for CRAs? This is Part 2 of our series, “Cytokine Storms a-brewing…”. Miss Part 1? Catch up here. When are cytokine release assays (CRA) required? In the case of TGN1412, the biologic was an antibody. However, any product- whether a large biological molecule or small chemical- that has the potential to interact with the immune system should be tested. Furthermore, products targeting membrane-bound antigens could pose a higher risk for promoting cytokine release. Given that cancer immunotherapy is an increasingly popular field and many of its targets modulate the immune system, the products designed [...]

Cytokine Storms a-brewing… (Part 1)

Cytokine Storms a-brewing… (Part 1) What is a cytokine storm?  A cytokine storm, or cytokine release syndrome (CRS), is a clinical event resulting from the infusion of antibody therapies in patients. The patients experience a massive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which leads to debilitating symptoms, severe multi-organ failure, and the need for advanced medical care1. Needless to say, this is an unwanted side-effect of the biologic. TGN1412 One of the most well documented cases of a biologic that caused a cytokine storm is TGN1412, an anti-CD28 “superagonist” antibody that was proposed to treat certain autoimmune diseases and hematologic cancers2.  While [...]

Consider these Points Before Starting Tissue Cross-Reactivity Studies (PART 2)

PART 2:  What to Consider & How to Prepare for TCR studies Considerations for IHC-based TCR Studies According to FDA guidance in ‘‘Points to Consider in the Manufacture and Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Products for Human Use’’, frozen tissue is recommended for IHC based TCR studies.  When IHC is used to perform TCR studies, the interaction of the antigen and the test biologic is key.  The recognition of the epitope depends on the linear amino sequence and/or a three-dimensional conformation, which occurs when the protein is folded correctly.  However, the fixation or freezing process of tissue can alter the protein [...]

By |2021-12-19T13:26:18-08:00February 28th, 2014|Blog, Safety Assessment, Tissue-Cross Reactivity|0 Comments

Consider these Points Before Starting Tissue Cross-Reactivity Studies (PART 1)

PART 1:  Why Drug Development Values TCR Studies What are Tissue Cross-Reactivity studies? Tissue cross-reactivity (TCR) studies are screening assays used to identify the specific and non-specific binding of test biologics (i.e. antibodies or antibody-like proteins) in various human or non-human tissues. If human tissues are used, the primary goal is to identify potential off-target, cross-reactive epitopes across a wide range of tissues. If non-human tissues are used, these studies can help identify the most relevant species with a similar target expression profile to human.   These studies are routinely performed by leading drug development companies like Pfizer, Genentech, and Genzyme, [...]

By |2021-12-19T13:26:25-08:00February 9th, 2014|Blog, Safety Assessment, Tissue-Cross Reactivity|0 Comments
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